• Dr Muhammad Qasim Assistant Professor, Department of Urdu, Allama Iqbal Open University, Islamabad Author


Comparison, Sbak.e.Hindi, Puzzle, Ghazal, Abulkalam Azad, Distraction, Text,, Interpretations, Jayalal Kaul, Mirza Ghalib


“Ghalib: A Critical Appreciation of His Poetry and Life” written by Dr Syed Abdul Latif and published in 1928, is the first regular work in English on Mirza Ghalib. In this book, Dr Latif has tried to examine Ghalib's poetry in the context of English poetry. Later on, “The Life and Odes of Ghalib” by Abdullah Anwar Beg was published in 1940, along with Ghalib’s biography and the translation of his selected poems.

“Interpretations of Ghalib” is the book, which for the first time consciously presents the translation of selected poems of Diwan-e-Ghalib.

This article critically evaluates "Interpretations of Ghalib" by J. L. Kaul. It was published by Atama Ram & Sons, Dehli, in 1957. In these interpretations, 326 (three hundred and twenty-six) verses have been selected from Ghalib’s Poetry. These selections are interpreted under the themes of Interrogation, One Art, One Life, One Love, etc. The book is significant as it contains only the selected renderings, not a biography. As far as the quality of these translations is concerned, the book under review is not a good example.

In “Interpretations of Ghalib”, Pandit Jayalal Kaul has tried to make hin interpretations of the name of Ghalib. To what extent have these interpretations succeeded in representing the source text? An analysis of this will be provided in this article with examples. Kaul has not limited himself to translation, but has also added a lot to clarify the idea, and has expanded and even amended the meanings. J. L. Kaul failed to transmit the style and meanings of Ghalib's poetry effectively


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On the thought and art of Ghalib’s poetry, this is the first formal book in the English language whose author didn’t emphasise the distinctive features of Ghalib’s poetry. The author didn’t reflect Ghalib’s poetry by his insight rather he undervalued the worth of Ghalib’s verse by comparing him with Wordsworth, Shelley, Tennyson and Browning. Ghalib cannot be compared to these poets. What is the linkage of these poets’ cultural, literary, poetic and historical tradition with Ghalib? Ghalib is an eminent poet of Sabak.e.Hindi and the rest of these poets carry the British poetic culture. By the valueless comparison of such contrasting poetic cultures, Dr Latif tried to worth down Ghalib’s poetry. To him, Ghalib neither has philosophical grounds nor has mysticism, his poetry is nothing but an articulation of words only; there is a lack of harmony in his poetry. These are the bases on which he is averse to considering Ghalib amongst the great poets of the world.

Ghalib: Dewan-e-Ghalib Nuskha-e-Arshi. Edited by Imtiaz Ali Khan Arshi. Lahore: Majlis Tarraqi-e-Adab. 1992. PP. 163.

Kaul, J.L. Interpretations of Ghalib. Delhi: Atama Ram and Sons. 1957. PP. 31.

Ghalib: Dewan-e-Ghalib Nuskha-e-Arshi. PP. 243.

Kaul, J.L. Interpretations of Ghalib. 32

Ghalib: Dewan-e-Ghalib Nuskha-e-Arshi. PP. 185.

Kaul, J.L. Interpretations of Ghalib. 45

Ghalib: Dewan-e-Ghalib Nuskha-e-Arshi. PP. 161.

Kaul, J.L. Interpretations of Ghalib. 33

Ghalib: Dewan-e-Ghalib Nuskha-e-Arshi. PP.194.

Kaul, J.L. Interpretations of Ghalib. 39

Ghalib: Dewan-e-Ghalib Nuskha-e-Arshi. PP.284.

Kaul, J.L. Interpretations of Ghalib. 46

Ghalib: Dewan-e-Ghalib Nuskha-e-Arshi. PP.308

Kaul, J.L. Interpretations of Ghalib. 47

Ghalib: Dewan-e-Ghalib Nuskha-e-Arshi. PP.253

Kaul, J.L. Interpretations of Ghalib. 67.

Azad, Abul Kalam. Interpretations of Ghalib (Preface). 19th October 1956.

Ghalib: Dewan-e-Ghalib Nuskha-e-Arshi. PP. 248.

Kaul, J.L. Interpretations of Ghalib. 22

Ghalib: Dewan-e-Ghalib Nuskha-e-Arshi. PP.296.

Kaul, J.L. Interpretations of Ghalib. 74

Ghalib: Dewan-e-Ghalib Nuskha-e-Arshi. PP.172.

Kaul, J.L. Interpretations of Ghalib. 23/24.

Suroor, Aalay Ahmad, Ghalib ki Urdu Shairi K Urdu Trajim icl. In Ghalib Nama, New Delhi: Ghalib Institute. January 1990. PP. 10-11

John Donne (1631-1572) - The famous great metaphysical poet of his era. Born in 1572 to a Roman Catholic family when it was considered illegal in England to practice this religion. His poetry is marked by aspects of the intensity of passion and sound, faith and belief, human love, love, real love, and the possibility of salvation and salvation. These contradictions are the basic hallmarks of his poetry, which he has adorned with the creative use of metaphor and ambiguity.

Richard Kresha (1649-1613) - A prominent representative name for the tremendous metaphysical poetry of 17th-century English literature. Initially, Protestant became known as a commitment to thought and opposition to the Catholic faith, and later with the passage of time, there was devotion and commitment to Catholic thought. Three collections of Kresha's poetry were published in her life and a collection was published posthumously. Kresha's poetry seems to be influenced by contemporary English or post-medical poets, Italian and Spanish Sufi syllables. Christianity's attachment to deep truths is the base of his poetry.

Thomas Hardy (1928-1840) - Distinguished among the most famous poets and novelists in the history of English literature. Hardy saw and felt both Victorian and modern times with the eye of consciousness and his protasis appear in his creations. Initially, his poetry did not get the recognition that his novels received, but later he was counted among the great poets of the twentieth century. Hardy's poetry is an expression of topics such as love, frustration with life and a flock of good destiny.

Abercrombie (1938-1881) - Poet or literary critic. The art of art is a poet A long time It is known that you are a philosophical poet or after the nature of the indazetics.



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